Sans Crainte Signature

Of the Land Deeds and Treaty's of one that I am Sure of the Signature of Jean Baptist (Bt) Sans Crainte or his son of the same name Is The "Treaty Of Greenville" . This Signature is compared to others that I believe to be valid for The father or Son, one or more of these Papers ( First Nation deeds) are probably attributed to both

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Saturday, December 24, 2011

“trading dynasties"

Peterson (1981:158) provides examples of what she typifies as three patterns of marriage
among Great Lakes métis trade families: 1) a son first entered into a short-term “country” marriage
with a native woman to ensure the trust of her band; 2) this was usually followed by a permanent
second marriage to a prominent métis or French-Canadian creole woman of another trading family,
and; 3) métis daughters generally married other métis or if members of the elite, to incoming
Europeans. Such patterns resulted in what Peterson calls “trading dynasties"

PRAX IS Research Associates, 1999: Historic Métis in Ontario - Wawa Page 25

Friday, December 23, 2011

An important métis “invention” was the language of trade

"An important métis “invention” was the language of trade (Francais sauvage) which
Peterson (1981:176-179) demonstrates was in use in the lower St Lawrence as early as 1632. Further
north, an English equivalent of trade communication known as “Home Guard” Ojibwa developed,
but it was the French derivative that pervaded and eventually evolved into the vernacular of
Canadians and métis at Red River by the 1830s. This new language now known as Michif is a
combination of French and Ojibwa and “most certainly transported from the Great Lakes region as
the trade shifted westward” (ibid.:179)"

PRAXIS Research Associates, 1999: Historic Métis in Ontario - Wawa Page 2 7

Referring to metis-PRAXIS Research Associates, 1999: Historic Métis in Ontario - Wawa,(page 2 4)

R E S E A R C H    R E P O R T:
300 Water Street
P.O. Box 7000
Peterborough, Ontario K9J 8M5
August 12, 1999

Excerpt from Page 24

"Peterson (1985:39) asserts that the distinctiveness of métis in Great Lakes area was fully
apparent to outsiders by the early decades of the 1800s when racial terms began to be used in
classifying Indians from half-breeds or métis. Van Kirk (1980:95-6) reports that ca. 1800, a NWC
policy of supporting servants’ families coupled with the emergence of a body of “freemen”, resulted
in the progeny of Nor’Westers being recognized at an early stage as a group distinct from the Indians.
They were known as “métis” or “bois brulés” and by far the largest number of them were
descendants of the French-Canadian engagés and their Indian wives. According to Gorham (ibid.:40-
41), it was not until the 1820s that a few scattered references to half-breeds began to appear in the
writings of Catholic missionaries – one of whom writes of marriages of “Canadians or halfbreeds
to full blooded Indian women.” While indicating the existence of a separate ethnic category for
mixed bloods, this quote also raises the issue of the ambiguous use of the word “Canadian” to refer
to métis, a methodological problem raised also by Giraud (1986). Giraud emphasizes that the context
in which the word is used in historical documents from this time period is key to determining to
whom the name ‘Canadian’ or canadien is referring. In many cases the name is applied to employees
of the North West Company. Giraud’s “Canadian Métis” refers to NWC mixed-blood individuals
and families, in contrast to those attached to the Hudsons Bay Company whom he labels “Scottish
half-breeds (ibid.:346-347)"
Full report-